The tactics they used to scare the Indians were guerilla warfare, and it worked. In such a situation, they turned out to be in a desperate position and held the lowest socioeconomic standing in the US society. Not until the "Second Reconstruction"—the civil rights revolution of the s—would the United States once again seek to come to terms with the political and social consequences of the destruction of slavery.
The war and Reconstruction completed the profound economic change abolition the outdated mode of production, slavery, and expanding opportunities for the rapid industrialization of the entire nation, from the North to South. At Colfax, Louisiana, inscores of black militiamen were killed after surrendering to armed whites intent on seizing control of local government.
This development changed the nature of combat, emphasizing the importance of heavy fortifications and elaborate trenches and giving those on the defensive—usually Southern armies—an immense advantage over attacking forces.
There was no national banking system, no national railroad gauge, no national tax system, not even reliable maps of the areas where the war would take place. For instance, Ku Klux Klan emerged during the Reconstruction and cases of lynching of African Americans in Southern states of the US were quire frequent that justified the deployment of the army to protect African Americans shortly after the Civil War.
The country was in a fragile state and even though many northerners were ready for complete civil rights for African Americans, if that were to happen the South would not be willing to come back to the union. Before Abraham Lincoln was assassinated on December,by John Wilkes, Lincoln announced the first Reconstruction plan a year before the Civil War had ended and Lincoln offered general amnesty to white southerners who would pledge an oath of loyalty to the government and accept the abolition of slavery.