Celebrity endorsements of high involvement brands
Impact of celebrity endorsement on sales
In addition, some studies show no effects at all. According to Russell and Stern , consumers infer the celebrity—object association to be of greater strength if celebrities explicitly express their support, signaling commitment and reliability. This should foster automatic attention, too Bargh and Pratto In fact every possible brand that enjoys high equity amongst its target populace has used …show more content… But in recent years, the increasing clutter of advertisements has meant that just having an advertisement is not enough. To the best of our knowledge, no study has ever compared both modes; instead, they have researched either implicit or explicit endorsements. Endorsement explicitness Explicitness can broadly be categorized into two modes: implicit and explicit endorsements. Once a celebrity endorsement grabs their attention, consumers are assumed to become more interested in the advertised object as compared with a non-endorsed or other-endorsed object. According to Kenton , the credibility and persuasiveness of a spokesperson depends on four dimensions: goodwill and fairness e. Instead, studies have typically focused on only one type. H1: As compared with non-celebrity endorsements or no endorsements, celebrity endorsements evoke greater attention, interest, and awareness as well as perceptions more in line with the respective endorser. Consumers have experienced in their past that people frequently present themselves with objects they share similarities with Elliot and Wattanasuwan According to the theory, behavior is strongly determined by behavioral intentions.
Moderators Studies investigating the applied advertising effectiveness framework have consistently found that people respond differently to advertisements depending on characteristics of the ad, the advertised object, and individual characteristics Vakratsas and Ambler A dictionary definition suggests that a celebrity is someone of renown, distinction or eminence.
Instead, studies have typically focused on only one type.
Therefore, we can see whether celebrity endorsements outperform any other kind of endorsement. H2: As compared with non-celebrity endorsements or no endorsements, celebrity endorsements evoke more positive attitudes toward the ad and the endorsed object.
Celebrity endorsement statistics
It follows that people generally strive for a consistent organization of their cognitive structures, experiencing this state as most tension-free. In line with this reasoning, we included various moderators within our framework accounting for the fact that consumers do not respond uniformly to advertising cf. According to Russell and Stern , consumers infer the celebrity—object association to be of greater strength if celebrities explicitly express their support, signaling commitment and reliability. Celebrity endorsements, if effectively executed, can do wonders for a product or service. This meta-analysis will shed light on these mixed results by calculating an overall effect. Furthermore, most studies have looked at endorsements of for-profit causes. In addition, some studies show no effects at all. We thus hypothesize larger effects for object—endorser congruence compared to incongruence. For instance, Stuart et al.
The assumptions have been supported by various meta-analyses Armitage and Conner ; Kim and Hunter Schema Theory posits that attributes of celebrities can be integrated more easily with existing product schemas if the celebrity schemas match the product schemas Lynch and Schuler In addition, celebrities are well-known, resulting in more accessible representations in memory Erfgen et al.
Endorsement explicitness Explicitness can broadly be categorized into two modes: implicit and explicit endorsements.
Celebrity endorsement in advertising
Both theories assume enhanced effects in the case of congruence. Since celebrities are generally liked, consumers also tend to be more motivated to assess what kind of object a celebrity is endorsing. Social Adaptation Theory assumes that people use information sources as long as they facilitate adaptation to their environment. According to Friedman and Friedman, a "celebrity endorser is an individual who is known by the public for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed". We consequently ask: RQ1: Do celebrity endorsements differ in their effectiveness depending on the control group applied? H6: Congruent celebrity endorsers evoke stronger endorsements effects when compared to incongruent ones. These experiences can be obtained directly and indirectly, such as through celebrity endorsements Kent and Allen
In fact every possible brand that enjoys high equity amongst its target populace has used …show more content… But in recent years, the increasing clutter of advertisements has meant that just having an advertisement is not enough.
H7: Explicit endorsements evoke stronger effects than implicit ones. This is due to the fact that consumers are familiar with celebrities by definition. Endorser sex Though endorser sex has generally been viewed as influential e.
based on 74 review